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They have long histories of utilising white skin as a key criterion of personal beauty. In India, white skin is considered as a mark of class and caste as well as an skin whitening treatment in uk tetra. Historically, women especially married women in South India bathed with turmeric.
Apart from the health skin whitening treatment in uk tetra involved, it also has skin lightening and anti-inflammatory properties. Skin lightening products are popular not only in Asian cultures, but also in other countries. Since the s, Asia has been the fastest growing sector in the global skin-lightening market.
Asia is a lucrative market with high-growth potential because of a rising middle-class with increasing disposable income and centuries-old entrenched cultural impressions of beauty. Elsewhere in Asia, a survey by the London-based market research firm Synovate found that four out of ten women in Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan use a skin whitening cream. The mass media, particularly television and newspapers, promotes whiteness and brightness as symbols of attractive, adorable, desirable, pure, loveable and competent.
A lighter skin tone is thus promoted as a standard for attractiveness and competence. Whiteness and brightness is more bearing on women than men, because of physical attractiveness is perceived as associated with social and intellectual competence, integrity, potency, dominance, and even good mental health.
This explains why women constitute the overwhelming majority of those who practice skin lightening. Natural skin lighteners and skin brighteners Ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl acetate and ascorbyl palmitate have been used for over 25 years as depigmenting agents in concentrations of per cent.
These are now replaced by the more stable derivative magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in several formulations. Tyrosinase inhibitors such as arbutin from the leaves of the common bearberry, Arctophylos urva ursi and other plantsglabridin from licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra rootsascorbic acid and its derivatives, kojic acid a bacterial carbohydrate metabolite are better tolerated than hydroquinone.
Aloesin from Aloe is reported to be a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase, affecting the action of tyrosinase complex in the substratum and reducing the conversion of DOPA into melanin.
Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone beta-D-glucopyranoside effective in the topical treatment of various skin hyper-pigmentations characterised by hyperactive melanocyte function. It is found that several plants, including Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi bearberryleaves of pear trees and certain herbs. In in-vitro studies, it was determined that arbutin inhibited tyrosinase activity of cultured human melanocytes at noncytotoxic concentrations, unlike hydroquinone.
Tetrahydrocurcuminoids is a colourless composition derived from the yellow curcuminoids, useful in brightening and lightening skin tone, and in offering protection against the development of melanoma. Tetrahydrocurcuminoids provide the bioprotectant antioxidant effects of turmeric without the yellow colour of curry. Derived from turmeric roots, this composition is a scientifically-proven topical antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, with ultraviolet B UVB protectant effects and superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to ascorbic acid and Vitamin E.
A potent inhibitor of melanogenesis, its activity was found to be several fold greater than Kojic acid, glabridin and other natural extracts. The hydrogenated and colourless derivatives of curcuminoids, namely tetrahydrocurcuminoids, include tetrahydrocurcumin THCtetrahydrodemethoxycurcumin THDMC and tetrahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin THBDMC.
Studies indicate that tetrahydrocurcuminoids, particularly tetrahydrocurcumin, efficiently inhibit tyrosinase. Tetrahydrocurcumin efficiently inhibits tyrosinase and is more effective than Kojic acid, arbutin and Vitamin C, which are used as natural depigmenting agents.
The powerful tyrosinase inhibitory activity of tetrahydrocurcumin could also slow down melanogenesis, thereby lightening the skin tone. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 50 human subjects, 0.
Skin-lightening actives Glabridin is a potential molecule which is known for its skin lightening properties. Licorice possesses potent and effective anti-inflammatory, antioxidant as well as melanogenesis-inhibiting properties. Glabridin helps to lighten the skin colour by inhibiting melanin formation, mainly by the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.
Glabridin also has anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of superoxide anion production and cyclooxygenase activity. Pterostilbene is a natural skin-lightening ingredient obtained from Pterocarpus marsupium. It has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Its UV protection potential is comparable to that of Resveratrol. It is reported to be safe and non-irritant. Artocarpus lakoocha extract is obtained from dried heart wood of Artocarpus lakoocha and standardised for Oxyresveratrol 95 per cent.
Oxyresveratrol is 32 fold stronger than Kojic acid with regard to skin-lightening potential. Artocarpus lakoocha extract acts on some of the major targets that cause undesirable pigmentation, age spots, freckles and other related skin conditions.
The skin-lightening activity of Artocarpus lakoocha extract was evaluated by two methods — enzyme-based tyrosinase inhibitory assay and cell-based melanogenesis inhibitory assay. Artocarpus lakoocha extract has a strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity when compared over Kojic acid for skin-lightening application. Hydroquinone is a strong inhibitor of melanin production, meaning that it prevents dark skin from making the substance responsible for skin colour.
Hydroquinone does not bleach the skin, but lightens it, and can only disrupt the synthesis and production of melanin hyper-pigmentation. It has been banned in some countries e. France because of fears of a cancer risk. Some research shows kojic acid to be effective for inhibiting melanin production.
However, kojic acid is an unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Upon exposure to air or sunlight it can turn brown and lose its efficacy. Many cosmetic companies use kojic dipalmitate as an alternative, because it is more stable in formulations. However, there is no research showing kojic dipalmitate to be as effective as kojic acid, although it is a good antioxidant. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol antioxidant found in numerous fruit and vegetables, including raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, walnuts, pecans, pomegranates and other plant foods.
Pomegranate extracts have a protective effect against UVA- and UVB-induced cell damage and thus has potential use in skin-whitening formulations. Inwhitening continued to be the key trend; however, it was no longer restricted to females. Furthermore, the skin whitening attribute in skin care products started to become stronger, with products for a light skin tone.
The author is a renowned cosmetologist. She can be contected at rashmi drrashmishetty.